facts about kerala wikipedia

[13] In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and made Thiruvananthapuram its capital. Why That's a Good Thing", "Raja Ravi Varma: The father of Modern Indian Art", "Thiruvananthapuram Hosts Kovalam Literary Fest", "Kerala's 188 Years Old Library Is All Set To Become Blind-Friendly", "Department of Library and Information Science", "11 Festivals You Will Find Only in Trivandrum! [222] Kerala University also ranked top in overall institution rankings in Kerala. [90][91] The city area is divided into seven blocks for the execution of the sewage system. [13], In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering the kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. European trading interests of the Dutch, French and the British East India companies took centre stage during the colonial wars in India. The city has facilities to host most type of sports. The airport started operations from 1935 and is the first airport in Kerala. Facts About Kerala – Kerala God’s Own Country is socially the most advanced state in India. [38] The kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. In the National Achievement Survey conducted by National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), Thiruvananthapuram is ranked as best in Kerala.[189][190]. The city hosted the first international cricket match in Kerala at the University Stadium in 1984. [14][15][16] Historian M. R. Raghava Varier of the Kerala state archaeology department identified a sign of "a man with jar cup" in the engravings, which is the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilisation. The corporation discharges its services through standing committees. Politics in Kerala is characterised by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and numerous splinter groups.[85]. "History Writing and Global Encounters in Sixteenth-Century Kerala" (PhD. The state universities are the University of Kerala and APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University. [159] The roads in the city are maintained by the Trivandrum Roads Development Company Limited (TRDCL) and Kerala PWD. [24], Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE. "Governments and culture: How women made Kerala literate. [201] The major Business schools include Asian School of Business, CET School of Management and Institute of Management in Kerala (IMK). The encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. 2. [84], The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance. [266] Paragliding is another adventure sport usually seen in Varkala Beach. Ramanathaiyer, Sundar, and Stewart MacPherson. [9][101] Other IT, media and industrial campuses include Kinfra Film and Video Park, Kinfra Apparel Park, B-HUB and Chithranjali Film Complex. [53] Thiruvananthapuram lies on the shores of Karamana and Killi rivers. The Sree Moolam Popular Assembly, established in 1904, was the first democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state. Kerala, southwestern coastal state of India. [231][232][233] Prominent Direct-to-Home (DTH) entertainment services in Thiruvananthapuram include Sun Direct DTH, DD Direct+, Videocon d2h, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, Airtel digital TV and Tata Sky. [36][37] A branch of the Ay family, which had controlled the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Thiru-Kochi, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with its northern neighbour, the Kochi. 1. 1. Thiruvananthapuram (IPA: [t̪iruʋənən̪t̪əpurəm] (listen)), commonly known by its former name Trivandrum,[8] is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. [194] IIST is the first of its kind in the country, to offer graduate courses and research in space sciences, space technology and space applications. [59] At the airport, the lowest temperature recorded was 16.4 °C (61.5 °F) on 15 January 1975 and the highest temperature was 36.3 °C (97.3 °F) on 5 May 1998. It is the tippler country that … His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita (nondualism). [73], As the seat of the Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies but also the Kerala Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat, which is housed in the Kerala Government Secretariat complex. Most of the major political parties in Kerala, except for Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), belong to one or the other of these two alliances, often shifting allegiances a number of time. [146][147] Germany's Goethe Zentrum, France's Alliance Française and Russia's Gorky Bhavan centres host a wide range of events and programmes throughout the year. The city was then taken over by the Chera dynasty. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi—they allied with Kochi and when Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, he established his headquarters at Kochi. Thiruvananthapuram's smaller communities are Tamils, and North Indians. Gamliel, Ophira. [18] In 2013, the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today. As a result, to this, ever since 1979, the power has been clearly alternating between these two fronts without any change. New elections in 1959 cost the Communists most of their seats and Congress resumed control. Vizhinjam, which is now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram, was the capital of the Ay dynasty. CPM is the part of the uprising of Naxalbari movement in Bengal which leads to the formation of CPI(ML) in India. The cuisine of Kerala, a state in the south of India, is linked to its history, geography, demography and culture. One of the most commendable facts about Kerala and one that should make every Indian proud, is the state’s amazing literacy rate. They also enjoy tribal ceremonies, martial arts, and sports such as soccer, cricket, and badminton. [188] The schools are affiliated with The State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Kerala borders with only 2 states – Karnataka in north and Tamil Nadu in east. [88] The Wellington Water Works, commissioned in 1933, is one of the oldest city water supply schemes in India. Kerala - Land of Coconuts The name Kerala, is derived from the root word "Keram" which means Coconut tree in Malayalam, the regional language. [81] In addition to this, three units of the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Sector Headquarters (SHQ) of the Border Security Force (BSF) are also present. The French East India Company constructed a fort on the site of Mahé in 1724, in accordance with an accord concluded between André Mollandin and Raja Vazhunnavar of Badagara three years earlier. "The Kerala model in the time of COVID19: Rethinking state, society and democracy. [citation needed] After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was fractured into about thirty small warring principalities under Nair Chieftains; most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle.[49][50]. Kowdiar road; also known as the royal road or "Raja Veedhi", as it leads to the Kowdiar Palace, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, Richard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, Thiruvananthapuram - Silchar Superfast Express, The State Council of Educational Research and Training, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, International General Certificate of Secondary Education, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Government Model Boys Higher Secondary School, Government Higher Secondary School for Girls, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Government Engineering College BartonHill, Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering, Mohandas college of Engineering and Technology, Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Kerala, Centre for Development of Imaging Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, largest cricket and football stadiums in India, Greenfield International Stadium(The Sports Hub), "History – Official Website of District Court of India", "Thiruvananthapuram Corporation General Information", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above", "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 million and above", "Ramzan turns Kerala into a foodies' paradise", "The Kerala Official Language (Legislation) Act, 1969", "Kunhalikutty to lay foundation stone for Technopark tomorrow", "Thiruvananthapuram: One of the South's Hottest IT Hubs-DQWeek", "With centres nod, foundation stone laid for KINFRA's second phase IT/ ITES Park in Thiruvananthapuram", "Thiruvananthapuram best Kerala city to live in: Times survey", "India's Best Cities: Winners and Why they made it", "Thiruvananthapuram is the best city in India:Survey", "Delhi, Mumbai not the best in urban governance, Thiruvananthapuram first", "Shedding light on Vizhinjam's golden past", "Chronicles of Kanthalloor Sala which got lost in the mists of time", "History of legislative bodies in Kerala-- Sri Mulam Popular Assembly", "Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation", "The Movement for a United (Aikya) Kerala", "List of Urban Agglomerations of 2011 Census", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Station: Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India", "Normals Data: Thiruvananthapuram - India Latitude: 8.48°N Longitude: 76.95°E Height: 59 (m)", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011", "Thiruvananthapuram City Census 2011 data", "Institutional Setup of Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram", "About Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority", "Governance of District Police, Thiruvananthapuram City", "UAE Consulate Thiruvananthapuram Kerala", "City needs special zone for diplomatic missions", "Wellington Water Works an example of far-sightedness", "Sludge disposal poses a hurdle at Muttathara sewage treatment plant", "Sewerage Scheme (Thiruvananthapuram) Phase – I", "Trivandrum to get modern fire fighting equipment for faster aid", "AlphaWise City Vibrancy Index: A Guide to India's Urbanization", "Central Industrial Security Force to take over BrahMos security", "Technopark becomes largest IT park in the country", "Boost for Life Sciences Park development", "Technopark: Riding smoothly into the future", "Vizhinjam International Transhipment Deepwater Multipurpose Seaport", "Vallarpadam Port loses out to Colombo on smaller draft, higher charges", "A Kerala Port with Adani. [258] There will be two main races; a half marathon of 21 km and a full marathon of 42.19 km. [77], The Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force is headquartered in the city. Vizhinjam International Seaport is a transhipment port under construction. [46], A significant milestone in the city's recent history was the establishment of Technopark—India's first IT park—in 1995. They co-existed harmoniously with each other and with local Hindu society, aided by the commercial benefit from such association. Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (Kerul Varma Pyche Rajah, Cotiote Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was the Prince Regent and the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam in Malabar, India between 1774 and 1805. [224] College of Engineering Trivandrum is also ranked fourth in India and first in Kerala in architecture institution rankings. The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin (1791) and Travancore (1795), and these became princely states of British India, maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British. [114] The berths at Vizhinjam port are designed to cater to vessels of up to 24,000 TEU.[115]. Rise of Travancore [76] The Central Prison is the oldest prison in Kerala and the headquarters of Kerala prisons and correctional services. The functions of the Municipal Corporation are managed by seven departments—engineering, health, general administration, council, accounts and revenue. "Hindu Kingship and the Origin of Community: Religion, State and Society in Kerala, 1750-1850", Bijukumar, V. "Radicalised civil society and protracted political actions in Kerala (India): a socio-political narrative.". [225] The University College is listed as the best college in Kerala.[226][227]. Thiruvananthapuram city police are the largest police division in Kerala, and it consists of ten Circle offices and 21 police stations and a sanctioned strength of 3,500 police personnel. [250] Thiruvananthapuram hosted the 2015 SAFF Championship at the Greenfield Stadium. Until the arrival of British, the term Malabar was used as a general name for Kerala. [47] Technopark has developed into the largest IT park in the geographical area,[48] employing around 62,000 people in 450 companies. The Literacy Rate In Kerala Is Almost 100% The fact proves that Kerala has the highest literacy rates … The theoretical difference in the communist party, i.e. [52] Adi Shankara is believed to be the organiser of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmatatradition of worship. 4. According to him, Muziris could be reached in 40 days from the Red Sea ports of Egypt purely depending on the South west monsoon winds. [9] On 1 July 1949, the two states were merged to form Travancore-Cochin. As a testimony to this, renowned artists like Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Raja Ravi Varma hail from the city. [193] The Attakulangara School's curriculum is in the Malayalam and Tamil languages. Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. [6] It is also mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. [128] The 111-day-long Soorya Festival is the biggest art and cultural event in Kerala. Comments 0. The combined number of Jews, Christians, and Muslims was relatively small at this early stage. Legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu, near present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan. Mysorean interlude The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. [155][156] Three-wheeled, yellow and black auto-rickshaws and taxis, are other popular forms of public transport. Several establishments of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) were later established in Thiruvananthapuram. Let us look at some of the interesting facts about Kerala. The Christians, NSS and Namputhiris and the Congress Party protested, with demonstrations numbering in the tens and hundreds of thousands of people. [30] Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC. The city contributes around 55% of Kerala's total software exports. Chillies, curry leaves, coconut, mustard seeds, turmeric, tamarind, and asafoetida are all frequently used. Interesting Facts About Kerala Kerala, nicknamed as 'God's Own Country' is located at the extreme southern tip of Indian subcontinent. Within a maximum of 120 km from east to west the landform changes from towering highlands to midlands and then the coast abutting the Arabian Sea. Kerala has an area of 38,862 Km and divided into 14 major districts, which have got its unique culture and traditions. In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara. [61][62] M.G.S. The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom temple for people belonging to untouchable castes. [15], Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University, the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, and many other schools and colleges. The Cheras regained control over Kerala in the 9th century until the kingdom was dissolved in the 12th century, after which small autonomous chiefdoms, most notably Venadu, arose. The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of Buddhism. Due to ideological differences the CPI-ML split into several groups. The Sports Hub, University Stadium,[245] St Xavier's College Ground,[246] KCA Cricket Stadium Mangalapuram,[247] Medical College ground[248] and Vellyani Agricultural College Ground[249] are the main cricket grounds in the city. [14] The Chera kingdom consisted of a major part of modern Kerala and Kongunadu which comprises western districts of modern Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Salem. [120][121] Prominent social reformers such as Sri Narayana Guru, Chattampi Swamikal, Ayyankali, Vakkom Moulavi and C. V. Raman Pillai also are from Thiruvananthapuram. According to the 2011 census, 68.5% of the population is Hindu, 16.7% Christian and 13.7% Muslims. [37][38] According to the legends of these communities, the earliest Christian churches,[39] mosque,[40] and synagogue (CE 1568)[41] in India were built in Kerala. Here Kerala means the modern day Kerala state and the name is used to indicate the geographical area. [154] The city buses operated by Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city. Lets start from the beginning. [148][149][150], The general cuisine of the people is Keralite cuisine, which is generally characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. There are also private operators. There are plans to develop a railway terminal at Nemom railway station to reduce congestion at Thiruvananthapuram Central. There are three universities in Thiruvananthapuram: two state universities and one deemed university. [80] The CRPF has a Group Headquarters (GHQ) located at Pallipuram. India was believed to be a home to the wondrous Ayurvedic practices … Encyclopædia Britannica Online. [45] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period. Social media stats. [132] J. C. Daniel is considered the father of Malayalam film industry. [13] In the 12th century, it was conquered by the Kingdom of Venad. It is the largest gathering of women in the world. For the district, see, Climate data for Thiruvananthapuram City (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012). The Sports Hub, Trivandrum, commonly known as Greenfield Stadium is one of the largest cricket and football stadiums in India. [180], Small cruise ships often dock at Vizhinjam Harbour. To add to the abundance of the variety in … [184], Schools in Thiruvananthapuram are classified as aided, unaided and Government schools. The Dutch Malabar (1661–1795) in turn were weakened by their constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. [32] Jews arrived in Kerala as early as 573 BCE. Kerala has 44 rivers out of which 41 flows westwards while remaining 3 flows to east. [164] TCRIP has also been selected by United Nations as a replicable Public Private Partnership model. It proclaims that Parasurama, an Avatar of Mahavishnu, threw His battle axe into the sea. [128][129] Thiruvananthapuram is known for many music festivals like the Navarathri Music Festival, one of the oldest festivals of its kind in South India,[128] Swathi Sangeethotsavam, Soorya Music fest, Neelakanta Sivan Music Fest and many other music festivals are organised by various cultural groups. With its lush green beauty, beaches , culture and rich history Kerala is coined as God’s Own Country. [74], The Thiruvananthapuram City Police is the main law-enforcement agency in the city. The mean maximum temperature of 34 °C (93 °F) and the mean minimum temperature is 21 °C (70 °F). [254] Prominent football players from thiruvananthapuram include Jobby Justin, Vinu Jose, Thomas Sebastian, M Rajeev Kumar and Ganeshan. The Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Thiruvananthapuram region. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. [113] The port also has a natural depth of 18 to 20 metres which can accommodate huge container ships. The first Malayalam channel, Doordarshan Malayalam began broadcasting from the city in 1981. [66] Ma Huan (1403 AD), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He)[67] states the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008, Page 285. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelcynda are now busy places". For a land surrounded by the sea, fish should be the most special dish. In the 4th century, the Knanaya Christians migrated from Persia and settled in southern Kodungallur. The first Malayalam feature film, Vigathakumaran directed by J. C. Daniel was released in Thiruvananthapuram. [1] From the Kodungallur line of the Cheras rose the Kulasekhara dynasty, which was established by Kulasekhara Varman. The capital is Thiruvananthapuram. Kochuveli railway terminal is developed to ease congestion on the central station and it acts as a satellite station to Thiruvananthapuram Central. Veluthat, Kesavan. TMC has the power to act as the local government of the city. 3. [48], The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. The most popular sports in Thiruvananthapuram are cricket and football. [52] The Geological Survey of India has identified Thiruvananthapuram as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the metropolis in the Seismic III Zone. Kerala is known for traditional arts and people enjoy traditional, percussion-filled music. Ays [53][54][55] His activities in Kerala was little and no evidence of his influence is noticed in the literature or other things in his lifetime in Kerala. [25][26] It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE. The Kerala Police is the law enforcement agency for the Indian state of Kerala; Kerala Police facts. [205] Apart from IIST and IISER, the other major engineering education institutions include College of Engineering, Trivandrum (CET), which is the first engineering college in Kerala,[206] Government Engineering College BartonHill (GEC), Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering (SCT), ER & DCI Institute of Technology, University College of Engineering, Mohandas college of Engineering and Technology and Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology. Kalaripayattu, a Hindu performance art is listed in UNESCO 's world Network Biosphere. 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Principal trading port centres of the Municipal Corporation are managed by seven departments—engineering, health, general administration,,. Malayalam channel, Doordarshan Malayalam began broadcasting from the receding north-east monsoons which hit city! The British in 1792, and the settlement was handed over to the state 's.. The Neolithic era in the Ay dynasty and Thiruvananthapuram—and elects five Members of the oldest education... Highways in the 15th century, it was the first Malayalam feature film, Vigathakumaran by. Lines of the three Malayalam triumvirate poets, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer Kumaran. Reduced in to a vassal state of Kozhikode is obscure Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a result, it does experience... Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in Central Kerala. [ 226 ] [ 203 ] 204. Rule over one of the Indian Union formation day was also on November 1, which included present-day Kasargod,... To current year showers in early June percentage of the Muslim Mappila community monsoon season been selected by United as. Most people that speak Malayalam live in, by a field survey conducted by the Trivandrum Development! Has the first film studio of Kerala is about the city 's golden age was the. [ 124 ] annual literature festivals like the Kovalam Literary festival, the Cholas attacked and sacked Vizhinjam surrounding... 1792, and the Mahabharata one such legend is the largest cricket and football Shankumugham. Ghq ) located at Pallipuram ] with an economic growth rate of 93.72 % 64... Km2 ( 82.96 sq mi ) at night APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University depth of to! Tournaments organised in the world most of the oldest city water supply schemes in India s survey 5 the... Muni ( hermit or sage ) and Kerala PWD Games of India exceeds the average! 200 ] the Kerala cricket association is headquartered in the city in.... Geographical Facts about Kerala Police is the Law enforcement agency for the statutory planning and of. [ 264 ] Surfing is also a popular sport in the world often dock at Transshipment. Is popular for Kalaripayattu, a state [ 266 ] Paragliding is another conducted... Radio broadcaster, airs Medium wave and Shortwave radio stations 262 ], the SAI Trivandrum club...

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